This study was aimed at defining the histogenesis of the pathologic spectrum of lymphoma arising in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Toward this aim, 87 AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (AIDS-NHL) and 16 Hodgkin lymphomas arising in HIV+ patients (HIV-HL) were comparatively analyzed for the expression pattern of several B-cell histogenetic markers, including BCL-6 (expressed by centroblasts and centrocytes), MUM1/IRF4 (expressed by late centrocytes and post-germinal center [GC] B cells), and CD138/syn-1 (expressed by post-GC B cells). Expression of MUM1, BCL-6, and syn-1 segregated 3 major phenotypic patterns among AIDS-NHL and HIV-HL: (1) the BCL-6+/MUM1-/syn-1- pattern, selectively clustering with a large fraction of AIDS-Burkitt lymphoma (17 of 19) and of systemic AIDS-diffuse large cell lymphoma (12 of 16); (2) the BCL-6-/MUM1+/syn-1- pattern, associated with a fraction of AIDS-immunoblastic lymphoma (8 of 24); and (3) the BCL-6-/MUM1+/syn-1+ pattern, associated with systemic and primary central nervous system immunoblastic lymphoma (14 of 24) and with primary effusion lymphoma (10 of 10), plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity (7 of 7), and HIV-HL (15 of 16). Analysis of nonneoplastic lymph nodes showed that the 3 phenotypic patterns detected in AIDS-NHL and HIV-HL correspond to distinct stages of physiologic B-cell development-centroblasts (BCL-6+/MUM1-/syn-1-), late GC/early post-GC B cells (BCL-6-/MUM1+/syn-1-), and post-GC B cells (BCL-6-/MUM1+/syn-1+). Expression of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 clustered with the BCL-6-/MUM1+/syn-1+ profile throughout the clinicopathologic spectrum of AIDS-NHL and HIV-HL. Overall, these results define novel histogenetic subsets of AIDS-NHL and HIV-HL and may provide novel tools for refining the diagnosis of these disorders.
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