In this study, previous articulatory midsagittal models of tongue and lips are extended to full three-dimensional models. The geometry of these vocal organs is measured on one subject uttering a corpus of sustained articulations in French. The 3D data are obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of the tongue, and from front and profile video images of the subject’s face marked with small beads. The degrees of freedom of the articulators, i.e., the uncorrelated linear components needed to represent the 3D coordinates of these articulators, are extracted by linear component analysis from these data. In addition to a common jaw height parameter, the tongue is controlled by four parameters while the lips and face are also driven by four parameters. These parameters are for the most part extracted from the midsagittal contours, and are clearly interpretable in phonetic/biomechanical terms. This implies that most 3D features such as tongue groove or lateral channels can be controlled by articulatory parameters defined for the midsagittal model. Similarly, the 3D geometry of the lips is determined by parameters such as lip protrusion or aperture, that can be measured from a profile view of the face. r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.