Osteoarthritis is thought to be induced by the ageing-related loss of homeostatic balance between degeneration and repair mechanism around cartilage tissue in which inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen species, cytokines and prostaglandins are prone to over-production under undesirable physiological conditions. Phlorotannins are unique polyphenolic compounds bearing dibenzo-1,4-dioxin skeleton which are not found in terrestrial plants but found only in some brown algal species such as Ecklonia and Eisenia families. Phlorotannin-rich extracts of Ecklonia cava including LAD103 showed significant antioxidant activities such as DPPH radical scavenging, ferric ion reduction, peroxynitrite scavenging, and inhibition of LDL oxidation, indicating their possible antioxidative interference both in onset and downstream consequences of osteoarthritis. LAD103 also showed significant down regulation of PGE2 generation in LPS-treated RAW 246.7 cells, and significant inhibition of human recombinant interleukin-1alpha-induced proteoglycan degradation, indicating its beneficial involvement in pathophysiological consequences of osteoarthritis, the mechanism of which needs further investigation. Since LAD103 showed strong therapeutic potentials in arthritic treatment through several in vitro experiments, it is highly encouraged to perform further mechanistic and efficacy studies.
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