Cannabinoids (Total 11070 Papers Found)

Endogenous cannabinoid systems have been implicated in the physiological regulation of appetite by the ability of cannabinoid receptor agonists to induce hyperphagia. Both the exogenous cannabinoid Delta9-THC and the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) stimulate eating in rats. However, there has been no detailed analysis of the adjustments to feeding behaviour underlying this action. We used observational methods to determine the specific components of feeding affected by the ...
Repeated THC administration produces motivational and somatic adaptive changes leading to dependence in rodents. To investigate the molecular basis for cannabinoid dependence and its possible relationship with the endogenous opioid system, we explored 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) activity in mice lacking -, or -opioid receptor genes. Acute THCinduced hypothermia, antinociception, and hypolocomotion remained unaffected in these mice, whereas THC tolerance and withdrawal were minimally modified in ...
INTRODUCTION Cannabis-based medicines have a number of therapeutic indications, including anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The endocannabinoid receptor system, including the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and receptor 2 (CB2) and the endocannabinoids, are implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that cannabis-based drugs have therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthriti ...
Peripheral immune cells and brain microglia exhibit an activated phenotype in premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) patients that persists chronically and correlates with clinical measures of neurodegeneration. However, whether activation of the immune system contributes to neurodegeneration in HD, or is a consequence thereof, remains unclear. Signaling through cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB(2)) dampens immune activation. Here, we show that the genetic deletion of CB(2) receptors in a slowly progres ...
Anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist, is a potent vasodilator in the cerebral microcirculation. AEA is converted to arachidonic acid (AA) by fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH), and the conversion of AA to prostaglandins has been proposed as a potential mechanism for the vasodilation. Although AEA stimulated prostaglandin production by mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, no [(3)H]prostaglandins were produced when these cells were incubated with [3H]AEA. Incubatio ...
Rats administered the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 or the antagonist SR141716A exhibit marked deficits during acquisition of delay eyeblink conditioning, as noted by Steinmetz and Freeman in an earlier study. However, the effects of these drugs on retention and extinction of eyeblink conditioning have not been assessed. The present study examined the effects of WIN55,212-2 and SR141716A on retention and extinction of delay eyeblink conditioning in rats. Rats were given acquisition training fo ...
Recent studies have uncovered important cross talk between inflammation, generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular aging. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid anandamide metabolizing enzyme, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is emerging as a promising novel approach for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. In this study, we have investigated the age-associated decline of cardiac function and changes in inflammator ...
1. Es wurde in dem beim Ausschlüpfen des Wolfsmilchschwärmers Deilephila (Celerio) euphorbiae entleerten Exkrete der Kalium- und Phosphatgehalt bestimmt. 2. Der Kaliumgehalt des Exkretes beträgt bei einem Durchschnittsschwärmer 6,0 mg. Der Phosphatgehalt ist je nach dem Geschlecht verschieden. Er beträgt bei Männchen 0,433 mg, bei Weibchen 1,285 mg, auf einen„Durchschnittsfalter“ berechnet. 3. Die Harnsäure des Exkretes ist zur Hälfte als saures Kaliumurat, zur Hälfte als freie Säu ...
QUESTION One of my breastfeeding patients is using marijuana to combat chronic pain. Is it safe for her to breastfeed? ANSWER Lactating mothers should refrain from consuming cannabinoids. Advising mothers to discontinue breastfeeding if they cannot stop using cannabinoids must incorporate the known risks of formula feeding. Cannabinoid exposure through milk has not been shown to increase neonatal risk, but there are no appropriate studies of this. In every case, nursing babies should be closel ...
Synaptic transmission and, consequently, neurological processes are regulated by neurotransmitters and other neuro-modulators that recognize specific receptors. There are two main families of receptors that are targets for most of the compounds which act in the central nervous system (CNS); ion channel coupled receptors and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). The drugs that act through these receptors and are used for the treatment of different diseases related with the CNS, have traditionally b ...
Previously, CD8+ T cells were found to be a sensitive target for suppression by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in a murine model of influenza infection. To study the effect of Δ9-THC on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), an allogeneic model of MHC I mismatch was used to elicit CTL. In addition, to determine the requirement for the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) in Δ9-THC-mediated CTL response modulation, mice null for both receptors were used (CB1 −/−CB2 −/−). Δ9-THC s ...
Glukokortikoide (GC) zählen zu den effektivsten und am häufigsten in der Rheumatologie angewandten Medikamenten. Der Einsatz ist jedoch limitiert durch ihr Potenzial, häufig und manchmal erhebliche Nebenwirkungen auszulösen. Sie vermitteln ihre Wirkungen sowohl rezeptorvermittelt (spezifisch) als auch rezeptorunabhängig (unspezifisch) auf genomischer und nichtgenomischer Ebene. Viele unerwünschte Arzneimittelwirkungen werden durch den Mechanismus der Transaktivierung, die erwünschten Effe ...
Ce travail s'insère dans une étude bi-polaire (Fribourg et Genève) portant sur le recours des personnes âgées aux services médicaux et médico-sociaux, et entreprise dans le contexte du programme national de recherche No 8 (Economie et efficacité du système de santé suisse). Pour la totalité des personnes prises en charge dans trois types de services (homes en partie médicalisés, maisons de retraite, services de soins infirmiers à domicile) répartis dans quatre districts francophon ...
A large body of evidence in humans and preclinical models supports a role for the endocannabinoid system in the proper execution of motivated or goal-directed behaviors. Operant sensation seeking (OSS) is a task that uses varied sensory stimuli as a reinforcer to maintain operant responding in mice. The purpose of the studies in this report was to begin to explore the role of endocannabinoid signaling in OSS utilizing cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) knock out ...
Over the past years, several lines of evidence support an antitumourigenic effect of cannabinoids including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), synthetic agonists, endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid transport or degradation inhibitors. Indeed, cannabinoids possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects and they are known to interfere with tumour neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion and metastasization. However, the clinical use of Δ(9)-THC and additional can ...
Improgan, a chemical congener of cimetidine, is a highly effective non-opioid analgesic when injected into the CNS. Despite extensive characterization, neither the improgan receptor, nor a pharmacological antagonist of improgan has been previously described. Presently, the specific binding of [(3)H]cimetidine (3HCIM) in brain fractions was used to discover 4(5)-((4-iodobenzyl)thiomethyl)-1H-imidazole, which behaved in vivo as the first improgan antagonist. The synthesis and pharmacological prope ...
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which couples to the Gi/o family of heterotrimeric G proteins. The receptor displays both basal and agonist-induced signaling and internalization. Although basal activity of CB1Rs is attributed to constitutive (agonist-independent) receptor activity, studies in neurons suggested a role of postsynaptic endocannabinoid (eCB) release in the persistent activity of presynaptic CB1Rs. To elucidate the role of eCBs in basal CB1R activ ...
Recent study demonstrated a close relationship between cerebellum atrophy and symptom severity of pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It has also been known that females are more vulnerable than males in developing anxiety disorders after exposure to traumatic stress. The mechanisms are unknown. Because cannabinoid receptors (CB₁ and CB₂) are neuroprotective and highly expressed in the cerebellum, we investigated cerebellar CB expression in stressed rats. You ...
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a single intraperitoneal injection of a stable analogue of endogenous cannabinoid anandamide - R-(+)-methanandamide (2.5 mg/kg) and CP 55,940 (0.25 mg/kg), an egzogenous CB1 receptor-agonist, on the calcitonin (CT) immunoreactivity of the thyroid parafollicular (C) cells. Four hours after injection with both cannabinoids CT immunoreactivity, evaluated with an avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method by means of rabbit antibodies again ...
Phenyl-propyl-diphenyl-propylamin (Segontin®) führt beim Menschen nach intravenöser Injektion von 10 mg zu einer Senkung der Konzentration der freien Fettsäuren im Plasma. Die tiefsten Werte werden im Mittel nach 20 min gefunden, nach 80 min ist der Ausgangswert bei dieser Dosierung wieder erreicht. Die Ursache dieses Effektes dürfte auf eine Blockierung der endogenen Katecholaminwirkung zurückzuführen sein. The free fatty acids were determined in human plasma after an injection of 10 mg ...
Antiemetic drugs are used to treat nausea and vomiting due to a variety of causes and have a wide range of pharmacological properties. The choice of drug will, therefore, depend in part on the condition being treated. The drugs can be classified as dopamine antagonists (including phenothiazines and nonphenothiazines), corticosteroids, cannabinoids, benzodiazepines, serotonin antagonists, antihistamines and anticholinergics. There is very little evidence of a relationship between plasma drug conc ...
Consciousness can be defined by two major attributes: awareness of environment and self, and arousal, which reflects the level of awareness. The return of arousal after general anesthesia presents an experimental tool for probing the neural mechanisms that control consciousness. Here we have identified that systemic or intracerebral injection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM281 into the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) - but not the adjacent perifornical area (Pe ...
A forensic standard procedure is described that combines enzyme-linked immunoassay for screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for confirmation to detect drugs of abuse in a sample before used to detect opioids and cocaine. We used two equal aliquots of the same previously selected cannabinoid positive hair samples, one of which was subjected to acid hydrolysis. Afterward, both the aliquots were subjected to basic extraction and then to immunoassay screening. After derivatizat ...
The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of neuroendocrine and behavioral adaptation in stress related disorders thus representing a novel potential therapeutic target. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 on stress mediators of HPA axis and to study the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in responses to forced swim stress. Systemic administration of URB597 (0.1 and 0.3mg/kg) reduced the forced swim stress-in ...
The present study was done to determine whether cannabinoid CB1 receptors of the central amygdala (CeA) are implicated in morphine-induced place preference. Using a 3-day schedule of conditioning, it was found that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of morphine (2, 4 and 6 mg/kg) caused a significant dose-dependent conditioned place preference (CPP) in male Wistar rats. Intra-CeA microinjection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA; 0.5, 2.5 and 5 ng/rat) dose ...
Wenn die höchsten Jura-Gipfel heute waldlos sind, so rührt es zum Teil aus der Zeit der Rodungen her, da man Land gewinnen wollte für den Weidebetrieb. Forschern wie Flahault, S. Aubert, Luquet und Moor ist zu verdanken, wenn man heute die natürliche potentielle Waldgrenze bei 1500–1600 m Höhe legen kann. Diese fällt mit der oberen Grenze der Bergstufe zusammen. Die Wald- und Busch-Inseln, die heute noch bis zu dieser Höhe stehen geblieben sind gehören größtenteils zum Fagion-Verband ...
Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists may be useful for their potential to increase or prolong opioid analgesia while attenuating the development of opioid tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AM251 (a selective CB1 antagonist) and JTE907 (a selective CB2 antagonist) on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats weighing 205–225 g were used in these experiments. To constitute morphine tolerance, we used a 3 day cumulative dosi ...
Human cannabinoid type 2 (CB(2)) receptor expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and successfully reconstituted in the functional form into lipid bilayers composed of POPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (POPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Reconstitution was performed by detergent removal from the protein/lipid/detergent mixed micelles either on an adsorbent column, or by rapid dilution to below the critical micel ...
CONTEXT The largest group of new psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthetic cannabinoids (SC). Those that become controlled are immediately replaced by new uncontrolled substances. The recent resurgence of the NPS market in Poland resulted in a further amendment to the Drug Addiction Counteraction Act. This resulted in significant changes in the composition of "legal high" preparations, and consequently a large outbreak of intoxications with SC was reported in Poland at the beginning of July 20 ...
M . H . ! Es ist mir eine Ehre, an dieser Stelle einen Beitrag zur Darstellung unseres heutigen Wissens und KSnnens auf dem Gebiete der Krebskrankheiten geben zu dttrfen. [ch w~thle dazu diejenige Krebsform, welche mir dm'ch t~gliehe Erfahrungen am gel~tufigsten und bekanntesten ist, den Krebs der Gebarmutter. W~ihrend wir es in der Beseitigung der fibrigen Neubildungen der weiblichen Genitalien zu eincr erfreulichen Sicherheit und Vervollkommnung gebraeht haben, lassen die Erfolge beim Gebarmut ...
Definition of the problem: Compromise is an ethical category. During the last 20 years it has rarely been considered, although there are many controversial ethical issues in medicine with no willingness for consensus. In the process of ethics consultation, dissatisfaction with the consultation or afterwards with the decision to act was also noticed. Arguments: Ethics consultation must take into account the anti-ethical implications. Therefore, it must consider the meaning of ethical compromise ( ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabinoid receptor agonists reduce intestinal propulsion in rodents through the CB(1) receptor. In addition to its antagonistic activity at this receptor, rimonabant (N-(piperidino)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-3-pyrazole-carboxyamide) alone augments intestinal transit. Using rat and guinea-pig ileum MPLM (myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle) preparations, we investigated whether the latter effect was through inverse agonism or antagonism of endoca ...
Aktivitäten der Ektoenzyme 5′-Nukleotidase (5′-N) und Phosphatase wurden gemessen an intakten Zellen aus 15 verschiedenen etablierten Linien menschlicher B- und T-Lymphoblasten. Während Phosphatase auf allen Zellinien exprimiert wird, waren 10 der untersuchten Linien negativ für 5′-N. 5′-N-negative Linien finden sich sowohl unter B- als auch T-Zellen; sie tragen auch keine kryptische Enzymaktivität. In einer 5′-N-positiven Linie folgt die Enzymaktivität der Wachstumskurve mit eine ...
The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system is an important regulator of synaptic function. Endocannabinoids acutely modulate inhibitory and excitatory transmission, and also mediate long-term depression at GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. Typically, endocannabinoid synthesis and release is stimulated by depolarization-induced calcium influx and/or activation of phospholipase-C (PLC) signaling triggered by mGluR activation. Recently it has been shown that brain-derived neurotrophic ...
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Azad, S. C., K. Monory, et al. (2004). "Circuitry for associative plasticity in the amygdala involves endocannabinoid signaling." J Neurosci 24(44): 9953-61. Endocannabinoids are crucial for the extinction of aversive memories, a process that considerably involves the amygdala. Here, we show that low-frequency stimulation of afferents in the lateral amygdala with 100 pulses at 1 Hz releases endocannabinoids postsynaptically from neurons of the basolateral amygdala of mice in vitro and thereby in ...
Der prothetische Ersatz bei Amputation oder Funktionsverlust der oberen Extremität hat in den letzten Jahren einen immer höheren und besonderen Stellenwert erlangt. Die Steuerung myoelektrischer Armprothesen konnte mittels Einsatz von selektiven Nerventransfers im Stumpfbereich deutlich verbessert sowie die Indikation zum prothetischen Ersatz erweitert werden. Übersicht über die chirurgischen, therapeutischen und prothetischen Möglichkeiten bei hohen Amputationen oder Funktionsverlust der o ...
Two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CBrs), CB1 and CB2, mediate the effects of cannabinoids and marijuana use, with functional evidence for other CBrs. CB1 receptors are expressed primarily in brain and peripheral tissues. For over a decade several laboratories were unable to detect CB2 receptors in brain and were known to be intensely expressed in peripheral and immune tissues and have traditionally been referred to as peripheral CB2 CBrs. We have reported the discovery and functional ...
BACKGROUND & AIMS Activation of enteric cannabinoid CB1 receptors inhibits motility in the small intestine; however, it is not known whether endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol) play a physiologic role in regulating intestinal motility. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of endocannabinoids in regulating intestinal propulsion in the mouse colon in vivo. METHODS Intestinal motility was studied measuring the expulsion of a glass bead inserted ...
A2A adenosine and CB1 cannabinoid receptors are highly expressed in the central nervous system, where they modulate numerous physiological processes including adaptive responses to drugs of abuse. Both purinergic and cannabinoid systems interact with dopamine neurotransmission (through A2A and CB1 receptors, respectively). Changes in dopamine neurotransmission play an important role in addictive-related behaviours. In this study, we investigated the contribution of A2A adenosine receptors in sev ...
Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid produced in the intestine that mediates satiety by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). OEA inhibits gastric emptying and intestinal motility, but the mechanism of action remains to be determined. We investigated whether OEA inhibits intestinal motility by activation of PPARalpha. PPARalpha immunoreactivity was examined in whole mount preparations of mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The effect of OEA on moti ...
1 Einflu\sB organischer L\:osungsmittel auf das Hautoberfl\:achen-pH. An 50 hautgesunden Personen wurden mit einer Glaselektrode auf unbehandelter und mit Lösungsmitteln vorbehandelter Haut insgesamt 2050 pH-Messungen vorgenommen. Das arithmetische Mittel aus 600 Meßwerten unbehandelter Haut der Unterarmbeugeseite liegt bei pH 5,5 und ist mit einer beträchtlichen Streuung durch individuelle und regionäre Aciditätsunterschiede behaftet. Eine Vorbehandlung der Haut mit Lösungsmitteln bewirkt ...
The endocannabinoid system includes important signaling molecules that are involved in several homeostatic and neuroendocrine functions. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the type 1 cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptor antagonist, rimonabant (10 mg/kg, p.o.), on hormone secretion, neuronal activation and mRNA expression in the hypothalamus following isotonic (I-) or hypertonic (H-) extracellular volume expansion (EVE). The total nitrate content in the PVN and SON was also assessed under ...
Seit mehr als 50 Jahren blieb die Säuglingssterblichkeit der außerehelichen Kinder doppelt so hoch wie die der ehelichen. Um die Ursachen dafür zu erforschen, ist in zwei Zürcher Kliniken eine Studie bei ledigen und verheirateten Müttern im Gange. Aus diesen ersten Ergebnissen ist ersichtlich, daß der soziale Status der ledigen Mütter im Vergleich zu den verheirateten niedriger ist; weniger Vorbereitungen auf Geburt und Säuglingspflege wurden getroffen und das Wissen um Empfängnisverhü ...
Citronella-Öl- und Neem-Präparate werden im Pflanzenschutz vor allem gegen tierische Schädlinge eingesetzt. Ihre Anwendung zur Unkrautbekämpfung befindet sich derzeit noch in der Anfangsphase. Da es hierbei zu einer Kontamination des Bodens mit hohen Dosierungen kommen kann und bisher kaum mikrobiologisch-ökotoxikologische Angaben vorliegen, wurde hierzu ein Laborversuch angelegt. Die Dosierungen des Citronella-Öl- und Neem-(Azadirachtin)-Präparats waren entsprechend dem geplanten Einsatz ...
UNLABELLED Endocannabinoids and their receptors play a modulatory role in the control of dopamine transmission in the basal ganglia. However, this influence is generally indirect and exerted through the modulation of GABA and glutamate inputs received by nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, which lack cannabinoid CB1 receptors although they may produce endocannabinoids. Additional evidence suggests that CB2 receptors may be located in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and that certain eicosanoi ...
Despite several overlapping functions of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 receptor), somatostatin (SST), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamus, nothing is currently known whether CB1 receptor-positive neurons coexpress SST and nNOS. In the present study, we describe the colocalization of CB1 receptor with SST and nNOS in the rat brain hypothalamus. In the hypothalamus, the distributional patterns and colocalization of CB1 receptor with SST and nNOS were selective and region sp ...
INTRODUCTION Postmortem redistribution (PMR), a well-described phenomenon in forensic toxicology for certain drugs, can result in increased central blood concentrations relative to peripheral blood concentrations. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component in cannabis or marijuana, is the illicit substance most commonly implicated in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases and fatally-injured drivers. No investigation of PMR of THC in human blood has been repo ...