Stimulation (motivation) (Total 223538 Papers Found)

The pleiotropic activities of interferons (IFNs) are mediated primarily through the transcriptional regulation of many downstream effector genes. The mRNA profiles from IFN-alpha, -beta, or -gamma treatments of the human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, were determined by using oligonucleotide arrays with probe sets corresponding to more than 6,800 human genes. Among these were transcripts for known IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), the expression of which were consistent with previous studies in whic ...
We have examined the role of two mesenchymal ligands of epithelial tyrosine kinase receptors in mouse mammary gland morphogenesis. In organ cultures of mammary glands, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, scatter factor) promoted branching of the ductal trees but inhibited the production of secretory proteins. Neuregulin (NRG, neu differentiation factor) stimulated lobulo-alveolar budding and the production of milk proteins. These functional effects are paralleled by the expression of the two factors ...
PURPOSE BAY 43-9006 is a novel dual-action Raf kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor that inhibits tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. This study established the safety and pharmacokinetics of BAY 43-9006 in 69 patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS BAY 43-9006 (50 to 800 mg) was administered once or twice daily on a varying weekly schedule. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in all patients; preliminary tumor response was als ...
Concerns with the environmental and health risk of widely distributed, commonly used nanoparticles are increasing. Nanosize titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used in air and water remediation and in numerous products designed for direct human use and consumption. Its effectiveness in deactivating pollutants and killing microorganisms relates to photoactivation and the resulting free radical activity. This property, coupled with its multiple potential exposure routes, indicates that nanosize TiO2 could ...
Endogenous cannabinoid systems have been implicated in the physiological regulation of appetite by the ability of cannabinoid receptor agonists to induce hyperphagia. Both the exogenous cannabinoid Delta9-THC and the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) stimulate eating in rats. However, there has been no detailed analysis of the adjustments to feeding behaviour underlying this action. We used observational methods to determine the specific components of feeding affected by the ...
Insulin resistance is an important metabolic abnormality often associated with infections, cancer, obesity, and especially non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We have previously demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha produced by adipose tissue is a key mediator of insulin resistance in animal models of obesity-diabetes. However, the mechanism by which TNF-alpha interferes with insulin action is not known. Since a defective insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activity has be ...
The biochemical explanation for lipid accumulation was investigated principally in Candida 107 and, for comparison, in the non-oleaginous yeast Candida utilis. There were no significant differences between these two yeasts in their control of glucose uptake; in both yeasts, the rates of glucose uptake were independent of the growth rate and were higher in carbon-limited chemostat cultures than in nitrogen-limited cultures. There was no lipid turnover in either yeast, as judged from [14C]acetate ...
The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE1) plays a central role in the DNA base excision repair pathway (BER) in two distinct ways. As an AP endonuclease, it initiates repair of AP sites in DNA produced either spontaneously or after removal of uracil and alkylated bases in DNA by monofunctional DNA glycosylases. Alternatively, by acting as a 3'-phosphoesterase, it initiates repair of DNA strand breaks with 3'-blocking damage, which are produced either directly by reactive ...
Details about molecular membrane dynamics in living cells, such as lipid-protein interactions, are often hidden from the observer because of the limited spatial resolution of conventional far-field optical microscopy. The superior spatial resolution of stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy can provide new insights into this process. The application of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in focal spots continuously tuned down to 30 nm in diameter distinguishes between free and a ...
In the present study, both lamprey GnRH-I and -III stimulated steroidogenesis and induced ovulation in adult female sea lampreys during their final reproductive stage. One injection of lamprey GnRH-III at 0.1 or 0.2 microg/g lamprey stimulated plasma estradiol levels in lampreys held at each of three water temperatures, 13 degrees , 17 degrees , and 19 degrees , corresponding to increasing stages of maturation. Four successive injections, 3 to 4 days apart, of lamprey GnRH-III at 0.1 or 0.2 micr ...
Astrocyte-enriched cultures were established upon passaging of primary cultures from the myelencephalon and mesencephalon of 7-9-week-old human embryos. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that third-fourth passage cultures were composed of a highly enriched population of proliferating, epithelioid cells, up to 90% of which expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); no macrophages and very few fibroblasts (less than 2%) were present. GFAP expression and proliferation declined upon further ...
1. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings have been made from upper limb muscles in a patient with well-defined congenital mirror movements occurring in association with Klippel-Feil syndrome and the results compared to those obtained in normal control subjects. 2. In the patient, liminal percutaneous electrical or magnetic brain stimulation applied over either hemisphere elicited bilateral and symmetrical short-latency muscle responses in relaxed intrinsic hand muscles. In the normal subjects unila ...
Data on 386 species with fire-stimulated flowering (fsf) in Australasia and South Africa/Madagascar were collated to show that they occur under a wide range of fire regimes, with 71% confined to the mediterranean-climate regions. About 40% only flower up to 2 years after fire (obligate), while the rest continue at a low rate until the next fire (facultative). Peak flowering occurs 5–18 months after fire in the mediterranean regions but at 1–7 months in savannas. Fsf is recorded in 34 fami ...
Morphine depresses the twitch and tetanus of stimulated guinea-pig ileum by reducing acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerve endings. Acetylcholine output per shock falls to roughly the same residual amount at varying stimulation rates. Since normal output per shock declines with increasing stimulus frequency, the proportionate effect of morphine diminishes as stimulus frequency rises. Acute "tolerance" to morphine and a state of "morphinedependence" can be produced. Phenadoxone, dihydromo ...
Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli, with the aim of evaluating and differentiating their effects on endocrine, metabolic and immune response. Both, corticosterone and LPS significantly elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios 1 h, 3 h and 24 h post-treatments. Repeated exposure to corticosterone caused a prolonged elevation of plasma corticosterone concentra ...
Dopamine signaling is mediated by five cloned receptors, grouped into D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) families. We identified by reverse transcription-PCR the presence of dopamine receptors from both families in INS-1E insulin-secreting cells as well as in rodent and human isolated islets. D2 receptor expression was confirmed by immunodetection revealing localization on insulin secretory granules of INS-1E and primary rodent and human beta cells. We then tested potential effects ...
The accumulation of free lysine in tobacco seed triggers the stimulation of lysine-ketoglutarate reductase, an enzyme that acts in lysine catabolism. The mechanism of lysine-ketoglutarate reductase stimulation was studied in two different systems: (1) developing seeds of wild-type plants in which the low basal lysine-ketoglutarate reductase activity can be stimulated by the exogenous addition of lysine; and (2) developing seeds of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a bacterial dihydrodipicolin ...
We describe a method of implementing efficient computer simulations of immune systems that have a large number of unique B- and/or T-cell clones. The method uses an implementation technique called lazy evaluation to create the illusion that all clones are being simulated, while only actually simulating a much smaller number of clones that can respond to the antigens in the simulation. The method is effective because only 0.001-0.01% of clones can typically be stimulated by an antigen, and becaus ...
Eph receptors comprise the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. They are classified into an A family and a B family on the basis of the characteristic properties of the corresponding ephrin ligands which are either GPI-anchored peripheral membrane molecules (A class ephrins) or transmembrane molecules (B class ephrins). Eph receptors and ephrin ligands were originally identified as neuronal pathfinding molecules. Yet, gene targeting experiments in mice have identified the EphB/ephrinB sy ...
Different patterns of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in the heart are thought to be dependent on altered mechanical and chemical conditions and can contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac fibroblasts are the primary regulators of the ECM and may respond to mechanical factors in vitro. We hypothesized that different types of in vitro strains, e.g. tensile or compressive, can stimulate different functional responses in cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts. In this study, we first showe ...
Progestagenic sex steroid hormones play critical roles in reproduction across vertebrates, including teleost fish. To further our understanding of how progesterone modulates testis functions in fish, we set out to clone a progesterone receptor (pgr) cDNA exhibiting nuclear hormone receptor features from zebrafish testis. The open reading frame of pgr consists of 1854 bp, coding for a 617-amino acid-long protein showing the highest similarity with other piscine Pgr proteins. Functional characteri ...
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus has the property of cooperativity, i.e. greater potentiation is produced if a larger number of afferent fibres is tetanized. The possible involvement of postsynaptic mechanisms in this process was investigated in the CA1 area of the hippocampal slice preparation. Following blockade of postsynaptic inhibition by GABA antagonists, e.g. picrotoxin, the induction of LTP was greatly facilitated. In picrotoxin-treated slices, LTP was induced in a pathway ...
OBJECTIVE Inhibition of the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) is currently being pursued as an insulin-independent treatment for diabetes; however, the behavioral and metabolic consequences of SGLT2 deletion are unknown. Here, we used a SGLT2 knockout mouse to investigate the effect of increased renal glucose excretion on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SGLT2 knockout mice were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet ( ...
Lasers are usually described by their output frequency and intensity. However, laser operation is an inherently nonlinear process. Knowledge about the dynamic behaviour of lasers is thus of great importance for detailed understanding of laser operation and for improvement in performance for applications. Of particular interest is the time domain within the coherence time of the optical transition. This time is determined by the oscillation period of the laser radiation and thus is very short. Ri ...
Short-term (24h) experiments were performed to examine the effect of anthracene (ANT) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cw92 grown in a batch culture system aerated with 2.5% CO(2). At concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 5.6 microM, ANT inhibited the growth of population in a concentration-dependent manner and EC(50) calculated amounted to 1.6 microM. At concentrations from 0.7 to 4.2 microM ANT stimulated respiration and inhibited the intensity of photosynthesis but did not affect chlorophyll content ...
The effects of several putative 5-HT1 receptorsubtype selective ligands were investigated in biochemical models for 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1D receptors (inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in calf hippocampus, rat and calf substantia nigra, respectively) and 5-HT1C receptors (stimulation of inositol phosphates production in pig choroid plexus). Following compounds were studied: 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine), TFMPP (1-(mtrifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine), mCPP (1-m-chloroph ...
Little is known about the neural control of female responses to male courtship. Female European starlings in breeding condition with high concentrations of estrogen select mates based on variation in song and approach nest boxes broadcasting male song. In contrast, outside of the breeding season (when estrogen is low) females do not display the same response to male song. The catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine regulate behaviors important for mate choice such as arousal, attention, sexua ...
CONTEXT Factors involved in the biology of normal and cancer stem/precursor cells from the thyroid are unknown. Thyroid cancer cells are responsive to insulin and IGF-I and IGF-II and often overexpress the insulin receptor (IR) and the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). OBJECTIVE We investigated the role of IR isoforms (IR-A and IR-B), IGF-IR, and their ligands in thyroid follicular cell precursors both normal and malignant. DESIGN We established cultures of follicular cell precursors as thyrospheres ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipolytic potential of solutions used in the practice of cosmetic mesotherapy to stimulate lipolysis, cause local fat reduction and reduce the appearance of cellulite. The mesotherapy solutions were tested in a human fat cell assay using the fold induction of glycerol generation as a measure of lipolysis. The following mesotherapy solutions were tested: aminophylline; yohimbine; isoproterenol; melilotus; aminophylline with melilotus; aminophylline with i ...
Cells of the mucosal lining are the first to encounter invading bacteria during infection, and as such, they have developed numerous ways of detecting microbial intruders. Recently, we showed that epithelial cells recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through the CD14-Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 complex. Here, we identify the substructures of LPS that are recognized by the TLR4 receptor complex. In contrast to lipid A, the O-antigen does not mediate an inflammatory response; rather it interferes wit ...
Hepatic insulin resistance is an important underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome that manifests itself in diseases such as diabetes type II, atherosclerosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this paper, we summarize comprehensively the current state of knowledge pertaining to the molecular mechanisms that lead to insulin resistance in hepatocytes and sinusoidal liver cells. In hepatocytes, the insulin resistant state is brought about by at least one, but more likely by a comb ...
The 4 kDa beta-amyloid peptide that forms the amyloid fibrils in the brain parenchyma of Alzheimer's disease patients is derived from the larger integral membrane protein, the amyloid precursor protein. In the nonamyloidogenic pathway, alpha-secretase cleaves the amyloid precursor protein within the beta-amyloid domain, releasing an extracellular portion and thereby preventing deposition of the intact amyloidogenic peptide. The release of the amyloid precursor protein from both SH-SY5Y and IMR-3 ...
Hydrogen production by Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 and of its mutant PK84, grown in batch cultures, was studied in a photobioreactor. The highest volumetric H(2) production rates of native and mutant strains were found in cultures grown at gradually increased irradiation. The native strain evolved H(2) only under an argon atmosphere with the actual rate as high as the potential rate (measured in small vials under optimal conditions). In this case 61% of oxygenic photosynthesis was used for H( ...
Activation of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by pretreatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) blocks hormone (IDM/BRL)-induced adipocyte differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells in proportion to the suppression of the elevation of the key mediator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARgamma1). Inhibition of MEK-induced ERK phosphorylation had no effect on adipogenesis but prevented this TCDD suppression. Initiation of MEK inhibition up to 6 h after IDM/BRL stimulation in ...
Exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acting through TrkB, is known to promote neurite formation and branching. This response to BDNF was eliminated by inhibition of TrkB kinase and by specific inhibition of the GEF1 domain of Kalirin, which activates Rac1. Neurons from Kalrn knockout mice were unable to activate Rac1 in response to BDNF. BDNF-triggered neurite outgrowth was abolished when Kalrn expression was reduced using shRNA that targets all of the major Kalrn isoforms, and re ...
Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hES-CMs) are thought to recapitulate the embryonic development of heart cells. Given the exciting potential of hES-CMs as replacement tissue in diseased hearts, we investigated the pharmacological sensitivity and ionic current of mid-stage hES-CMs (20-35 days post plating). A high-resolution microelectrode array was used to assess conduction in multicellular preparations of hES-CMs in spontaneously contracting embryoid bodies (EBs). TTX (10 micro ...
This study presents a multicellular computational model of a rat mesenteric arteriole to investigate the signal transduction mechanisms involved in the generation of conducted vasoreactivity. The model comprises detailed descriptions of endothelial (ECs) and smooth muscle (SM) cells (SMCs), coupled by nonselective gap junctions. With strong myoendothelial coupling, local agonist stimulation of the EC or SM layer causes local changes in membrane potential (V(m)) that are conducted electrotonicall ...
The molecular mechanisms which govern the biosynthesis and secretion of the various T cell-derived lymphokines are poorly understood at this time, in spite of their tremendous importance to the control of the mammalian immune system. Here we provide compelling evidence that production of the murine T cell growth factors interleukin (IL) 2 and IL4 are differentially regulated by glucocorticoid (GCS) hormones. Under conditions where IL2 production is reduced by GCS hormones, IL4 production is incr ...
BACKGROUND Recent studies demonstrated an impact of the nervous system on particle-induced osteolysis, the major cause of aseptic loosening of joint replacements. METHODS In this study of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells we analyzed the influence of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles and the neurotransmitter alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factorκB (OPG/RANKL/R ...
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of using modulated middle frequency alternating current (MFAC) muscle stimulation for functional electric stimulation-propelled cycling by people with spinal cord injury (SCI) compared with the conventional method of using standard low-frequency rectangular pulses (LFRP). DESIGN Repeated-measures. SETTING Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS Eleven otherwise healthy volunteer subjects with SCI (8 with American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] grade A, 3 with ...
In a previous study, we demonstrated that the amount of interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expressed by human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 is increased by pre-treatment with beta or gamma interferon (IFN-beta or -gamma). In the present study, we identified the regulatory effects of these IFNs on IL-8 mRNA expression and IL-8 production by human gingival fibroblasts. Priming with IFN-alpha (alpha), -beta, or -gamma upregulated the IL-8 m ...
Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) enhanced superoxide release and membrane depolarization in parallel in human granulocytes stimulated by the receptor-mediated agonists, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and wheat germ agglutinin, but not by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin and phorbol myristate acetate, which bypass the receptors to stimulate the cells. The optimal effect was obtained by pretreatment of cells with 25 to 50 ng/mL (1.3 to 2.6 nmol/L) rhG-CSF for ...
Objectives:The analysis of secretin-stimulated pancreatic fluid is being evaluated as an approach to improve the early detection of pancreatic cancer and pancreatic precursor neoplasms. The method of pancreatic fluid sampling may have a significant impact on tumor marker measurements. The aim of this study was to compare concentrations of mutant DNA in pancreatic fluid from patients who had samples collected from both the pancreatic duct and duodenal lumen.Methods:Thirty-six participants enrolle ...
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) peptide secretion from rat anterior pituitary corticotrophs and intermediate pituitary melanotrophs is stimulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH-stimulated secretion in the corticotrophs is inhibited by glucocorticoids in a complex fashion, involving both a fast, direct blockade of POMC secretion (minutes to hours) and a longer inhibitory action (hours to days) that decreases the amount of POMC peptide available for release. The current studies tested th ...
The influence of different agitation speeds on alcoholic fermentation by free and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a co-culture with free cells of Aspergillus awamori was investigated. Starch hydrolysis and glucose, glucoamylase and alpha-amylase accumulation in the fermentation medium was affected by agitation speed. Maximum amounts of the enzymes were obtained at 150-200 rpm after 72 h where, maximum growth and glucose accumulations were noticed at 200-300 rpm. Alcohol producti ...
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol constituent present in green tea, has been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, studies regarding human bladder carcinoma cells are limited and not well investigated. Hence, our study focused on the evaluation of EGCG-triggered apoptosis in TSGH-8301 human urinary bladder carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro as well as its related molecular mechanisms. In an in vivo study, EGCG inhibited xenograft tumor size of ...
Costimulatory signals provided by T cells are required for B cells to produce specific antibody (Ab) to T-dependent antigen (Ag) bacteriophage phi x 174. In this study, we demonstrate that if cultured in the presence of anti-CD40, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and Ag, purified B cells can produce antiphage Ab in quantities comparable to those synthesized by B cells cocultured with Ag and T cells. Isotypes produced by B cells in this culture system correspond to those observed in sera of B cell donors. ...
Type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) is a 50 kDa glycoprotein belonging to the serine protease superfamily. PAI-1 is consistently and dramatically upregulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare PAI-1 expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further explore the potential mechanism that may lead to induced PAI-1 expression. Twenty-five OSF specimens and six normal buccal mucosa were examined by immunohis ...
Leucine metabolism in skeletal muscle is linked to protein turnover. Since clofibrate is known both to cause myopathy and to decrease muscle protein content, the present investigations were designed to examine the effects of acute clofibrate treatment on leucine oxidation. Rat skeletal muscle cells in tissue culture were used in these studies because cultivated skeletal muscle cells, like muscle in vivo, have been shown to actively utilize branched chain amino acids and to produce alanine. The c ...
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is stimulated by endoplasmic reticulum stress as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which can promote apoptosis or cell survival. Non-conventional splicing, stimulated during the UPR, converts mRNA for "unspliced" XBP-1U to "spliced" XBP-1S mRNA. XBP-1 mRNA is oestrogen-responsive, but XBP-1S confers oestrogen independence and anti-oestrogen resistance to breast cancer cell lines. We therefore evaluated XBP-1 mRNA splicing as a factor in response of brea ...