Tetrahydrocannabinol (Total 5212 Papers Found)

Endogenous cannabinoid systems have been implicated in the physiological regulation of appetite by the ability of cannabinoid receptor agonists to induce hyperphagia. Both the exogenous cannabinoid Delta9-THC and the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) stimulate eating in rats. However, there has been no detailed analysis of the adjustments to feeding behaviour underlying this action. We used observational methods to determine the specific components of feeding affected by the ...
The effects in squirrel monkeys of nicotine, d-amphetamine, caffeine and dimethylheptyl tetrahydrocannabinol have been examined in three standard behavioral procedures: Fixed Interval, Fixed Ratio and Continuous Shock Avoidance, and two procedures developed to test neuromuscular performance: Physical Activity and Steadiness. Nicotine increased responding in the first half of Fixed Intervals and in Continuous Avoidance; d-amphetamine increased responding under all procedures except Physical Activ ...
BACKGROUND The use of appetite stimulants in cystic fibrosis (CF) is controversial because of doubts concerning efficacy and side-effects. The aim of the review was to establish whether appetite stimulants should be recommended in CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS Medline, AMED, British Nursing Index, Cinahl, Embase, The Cochrane Library, National Research Register and Google were searched. Unpublished studies, case reports and conference abstracts were sought from experts, including authors of identi ...
Previously, CD8+ T cells were found to be a sensitive target for suppression by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in a murine model of influenza infection. To study the effect of Δ9-THC on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), an allogeneic model of MHC I mismatch was used to elicit CTL. In addition, to determine the requirement for the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) in Δ9-THC-mediated CTL response modulation, mice null for both receptors were used (CB1 −/−CB2 −/−). Δ9-THC s ...
Over the past years, several lines of evidence support an antitumourigenic effect of cannabinoids including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), synthetic agonists, endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid transport or degradation inhibitors. Indeed, cannabinoids possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects and they are known to interfere with tumour neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion and metastasization. However, the clinical use of Δ(9)-THC and additional can ...
UNLABELLED Regulatory agencies have shifted their emphasis from measuring emissions during certification cycles to measuring emissions during actual use. Emission measurements in this research were made from two different large ships at sea to compare the Simplified Measurement Method (SMM) compliant with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) NOx Technical Code to the Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) compliant with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 Code of Fede ...
The major psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), also acts to suppress inflammatory responses. Receptors for THC, CB1, CB2, and GPR55, are differentially expressed on multiple cell types including monocytes and macrophages, which are important modulators of inflammation in vivo and target cells for HIV-1 infection. Use of recreational and medicinal marijuana is increasing, but the consequences of marijuana exposure on HIV-1 infection are unclear. Ex vivo studies wer ...
The ability of macrophages to function in the presence of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component in marijuana, was evaluated. THC added to macrophage cultures prepared from human peripheral blood inhibited macrophage spreading and phagocytosis of yeast. The effects of THC were concentration dependent, with inhibitory effects observed from 10 to 1 micrograms/ml or lower. These results suggest that macrophages are more sensitive to THC than are lymphocytes because mac ...
The role of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in driver impairment and motor vehicle crashes has traditionally been established in experimental and epidemiological studies. Experimental studies have repeatedly shown that THC impairs cognition, psychomotor function and actual driving performance in a dose related manner. The degree of performance impairment observed in experimental studies after doses up to 300 microg/kg THC were equivalent to the impairing effect of an alcohol dose producing a ...
Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. ...
T h e phenomenology of the complement system was quite extensively worked out by the early IY4Os when the four classical complement components. C'l, C'4. C'3 and C'2, had been described as had the 'anlage' of the observations that there were multiple pathways of activation. In the lY6Os, the complement components were purified as proteins and as antigens. T h e biochemistry of their interactions began to be worked o u t and it became recognized that a number of components were proteases. T h e f ...
Δ1Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) acutely suppresses tonic serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in adult male rats. The exact site of its action has not been identified. We have performed complete hypothalamic deafferentation (CHD), which disrupts the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) from the rest of the CNS, but did not abolish the abilitiy of THC to suppress hypothalamic-pituitary responses in gonadectomized male rats. This was shown by the equal reduction in serum levels of LH and p ...
A2A adenosine and CB1 cannabinoid receptors are highly expressed in the central nervous system, where they modulate numerous physiological processes including adaptive responses to drugs of abuse. Both purinergic and cannabinoid systems interact with dopamine neurotransmission (through A2A and CB1 receptors, respectively). Changes in dopamine neurotransmission play an important role in addictive-related behaviours. In this study, we investigated the contribution of A2A adenosine receptors in sev ...
The cannabis plant and products produced from it, such as marijuana and hashish, have been used for centuries for their psychoactive properties. The mechanism for how Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active constituent of cannabis, elicits these neurological effects remained elusive until relatively recently, when specific G-protein coupled receptors were discovered that appeared to mediate cellular actions of THC. Shortly after discovery of these specific receptors, endogenous ligands ( ...
  • Chaohua Dong, Peng Zhang,
  • Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • 2012
The immune functions of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) were widely investigated in mammals. However, limited researches on immune function of GPCRs were reported in invertebrates. In the present study, the immune functions of HP1R gene, a putative GPCR identified from red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii were reported. Expression of HP1R gene was significant up-regulated in response to heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. HP1R gene silencing mediated by RNA interference significantly ...
A principal goal of this research was to conduct a field evaluation of "on-site" multi-analyte drug testing devices to determine the most accurate, efficient, and cost-effective device available for the purpose of rapidly detecting drivers under the influence of drugs. Four on-site kits were selected and evaluated for accuracy and efficiency for the detection of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the cocaine metabolites (COC), and opiates (OPI). From 16 December 1995 to 17 March 1996, 303 voluntary uri ...
Electron microscope studies of young oocytes have demonstrated that the plate-fike, hcxagonally shaped yolk bodies previously observcd in living cells are wholly within the substance of oocyte mitochondria and that they remain within these mitochondria while increasing in size. These bodics possess a crystalline structure consisting of what appear to be lines, with a spacing of 70 to 85 A, and appear very densc in the electron microscope. After formalin fixation such bodies give an intense posit ...
A6slracr.-The rcstrictcd movement paradigm (RMP), which states adult fish do not move out of a pool or rcstricted stream reach, does not fully define the movements of stream fishes. Although stream fishes may spend thc majority of their time in n home pool, they also make regular exploratory trips away from the home pool. Rccapturc of Ouachita Highlands atream fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags showcd that the majority of thc uniqucly marked fish in this study were in the ...
PJ\IlADESA. Cal., Jan. 23 (AP)Albert Elnstpln wn..q Its excited as 0. school boy today. He was ready tor a vacation, For the l(lJIt two wC('ks the lessons Of his fortleUI year In school have been the kind that corrugate brows. Tomorrow be goel to the . ( P'-desert Thrf'e days will be 8pt>nt LINCOLN. Neb.. Jan . 23 A ,-In lh~ quietude or the Coachella. A federa l ,rnnil jury returned per· valley nellr Palm Srrlngs. where Jury Indictment. agll-Inst Victor Sey· the Derlln professor will be n. ...
We recently encountered a 25-year-old white man who died of substance abuse including methadone. The route of administration of the drug(s) appears to have been insufflation. He was found dead at home. There were bottles of prescribed medications and an empty bottle of non-prescribed methadone. There was a grinding device nearby. At autopsy, no needle tracts were identified. Microscopically, the bronchi had desquamated ciliated respiratory epithelium admixed with red-brown pigment, which was fou ...
INTRODUCTION Postmortem redistribution (PMR), a well-described phenomenon in forensic toxicology for certain drugs, can result in increased central blood concentrations relative to peripheral blood concentrations. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component in cannabis or marijuana, is the illicit substance most commonly implicated in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases and fatally-injured drivers. No investigation of PMR of THC in human blood has been repo ...
PURPOSE To investigate the effects of oral cannabinoids on retinal hemodynamics assessed by video fluorescein angiography in healthy subjects. DESIGN Interventional study. METHODS In a self-experiment, the cannabinoid dronabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) was administered orally to eight healthy medical doctors (7.5 mg Marinol; Unimed Pharmaceuticals, Chicago, Illinois, USA). At baseline and two hours after dronabinol intake, intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured and retinal hemo ...
AIM Plant cannabinoids, like Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate/desensitize thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels of vanilloid type-1 or -2 (TRPV1 or TRPV2). We investigated whether cannabinoids also activate/desensitize two other 'thermo-TRP's', the TRP channels of vanilloid type-3 or -4 (TRPV3 or TRPV4), and if the TRPV-inactive cannabichromene (CBC) modifies the expression of TRPV1-4 channels in the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS TRP acti ...
GC is commonly used for the analysis of cannabis samples, e.g. in forensic chemistry. However, as this method is based on heating of the sample, acidic forms of cannabinoids are decarboxylated into their neutral counterparts. Conversely, HPLC permits the determination of the original composition of plant cannabinoids by direct analysis. Several HPLC methods have been described in the literature, but most of them failed to separate efficiently all the cannabinoids or were not validated according ...
This paper aims to clarify the genetic mechanism that is responsible for the accumulation of cannabigerol (CBG) in certain phenotypes of Cannabis sativa L. CBG is the direct precursor of the cannabinoids CBD, THC and CBC. Plants strongly predominant in CBG have been found in different fibre hemp accessions. Inbred offspring derived from one such individual were crossed with true breeding THC predominant- and CBD predominant plants, respectively. The segregations in the cross progenies indicate t ...
Anxiety may negatively affect the course of coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to assess which factors are associated with anxiety in young adults with CAD. A cohort of individuals with premature coronary artery disease was formed between 2004-2011, as the Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC) study. Patients (men≤45-year-old, and women≤55-year-old) were visited between March 2013 and February 2014. All participants were examined, and ...
The authors crilisirlcr the design o f a CFAR processor tor the ad;iplivc llirc~liol~liiig syskin or an ISM rcccivcr. For this purposc, thc important specifications of ESM syslelus arc thc rcccption of pulscs with various widtlis iiiid raks , and vulucrahility to iioisc jmi i ic rs . Tlic major dilliculty i n dctcl-nliniiig the statistics i ) T tlic background nnisc is thc proklcin 01' ititcrferiiig sigrinls. In situations ol'tolerable vari;itions in bnckgrountl noisc power, ai1 MEx-CFAR process ...
The Cannabis sativa plant has been used to treat various physiological and psychiatric conditions for millennia. Current research is focused on isolating potentially therapeutic chemical constituents from the plant for use in the treatment of many central nervous system disorders. Of particular interest is the primary nonpsychoactive constituent cannabidiol (CBD). Unlike Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD does not act through the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor but has many other receptor t ...
An increasing number of novel therapeutic agents are targeted at cannabinoid receptors. Drug development programmes of new cannabinoid drugs may be facilitated by the identification of useful biomarkers. This systemic literature review aims to assess the usefulness of direct biomarkers for the effects of cannabis and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers. One hundred and sixty-five useful articles were found that investigated the acute effects of cannabis or THC on the central nervous ...
In order to assess the current knowledge on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, a meta-analysis was performed through Medline and PubMed up to July 1, 2005. The key words used were cannabis, marijuana, marihuana, hashish, hashich, haschich, cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, dronabinol, nabilone, levonantradol, randomised, randomized, double-blind, simple blind, placebo-controlled, and human. The research also included the reports and reviews published in English, French and Spanish ...
Hypoxia is a relevant physiological challenge for crab culture, and the hemolymph plays a crucial role in response to the hypoxia. In a 60 d feeding trial, Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) fed a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg nano-selenium (nanoSe) showed a significantly increased weight gain rate (WGR) and a reduced feed coefficient (FC) compared to those fed diets with 0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/kg nanoSe. Another 90 d feeding trial was conducted to determine the influence of dietary ...
There is a concerning trend in emergency admissions where individuals present with severe, persisting, psychotic symptoms and acknowledge recent use of Spice, a mixture of various herbs and synthetic cannabinoids. Spice is marketed as incense and often used as an alternative to cannabis. Synthetic cannabinoid containing products (SCCPs) are becomingmore popular around theworld. Their structure is similar to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); however, most are much more potent (EMCDDA, 2009). Furthermor ...
IT has been suggested that “drug” strains and “non-drug” strains of Cannabis sativa L. comprise two comprehensive groups1,2, which can be identified on the basis of their relative content of two of the principal “cannabinoids”. Drug strains have been thought to contain an excess, usually substantial, of (—)-Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in comparison with the amount of cannabidiol (CBD), including carboxylate forms of both compounds, and non-drug strains have been held t ...
Opioid abuse remains a significant public health problem; together with the greater availability of marijuana in some regions there is an increasing likelihood that opioids and marijuana will be used together. Polydrug abuse is associated with increased toxicity and poorer treatment outcome; thus, a better understanding of the consequences of repeated coadministration of these drugs will facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment strategies. This study examined the effects of ...
  • ,
  • Federal register
  • 2017
On July 1, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new drug application for Syndros, a drug product consisting of dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] oral solution. Thereafter, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) provided the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) with a scheduling recommendation that would result in Syndros (and other oral solutions containing dronabinol) being placed in schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act ...
The use of oral fluid (OF) as an alternative matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse has increased over the last decade, leading to the need for a rapid, simple, and reliable on-site OF testing device. Four on-site OF drug testing devices (Dräger DrugTest 5000, Cozart DDS, Mavand Rapid STAT, and Innovacon OrAlert) were evaluated on 408 volunteers at drug treatment centers. UPLC-MS-MS results were used as reference to determine sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each device, applying B ...
The organized, tightly regulated signaling relays engaged by the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) and their ligands, G proteins and other effectors, together constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This system governs many biological functions including cell proliferation, regulation of ion transport and neuronal messaging. This review will firstly examine the physiology of the ECS, briefly discussing some anomalies in the relay of the ECS signaling as these are consequently linked to maladies o ...
The recent shortages and price increuses f o r m d atld energy cause us to reexat?title rile role o f the land-grcinr college of agricllltrire. Agricultttre's startis it1 borh rhe sciences and tile htrr?1ar1ities is explored. Hedttcitlg the isolatior~ of ugricttltural scierltists from the busic disciplines utld ret~ewing tile entphasis on [he h1rmunisric elenrent ure called-for. Teucilittg agriclrl~ure as u liberal educatiorl sltbiect and incretrsed l~trtr~atlis~ic conretlr.for agricultural t?rq ...
delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (10 mg/kg) increased homovanillic acid in rat prefrontal cortex and olfactory tubercle. This dose did not affect homovanillic acid in the caudate. Higher doses increased homovanillic acid in all 3 regions. Cocaine (20, 30, or 50 mg/kg) did not affect homovanillic acid in any of these brain regions. ...
This paper refers to some closed two-stage queueing systems with state-dcpendent vacation policy. By means of the markovian rcnewal process and the stochastic decomposition formulas of the quantities in equilibrium for M/Gjl vacation models, we derive both stationary distributions of the queue length and the cyclic time for the closed state-dependcnt vacation model. We try to so!\'e the problems of closed systems by using thc known results of the related opened 1\lodels. and for the purpose give ...
Metabonomics has become a very valuable tool and many research fields rely on results coming out from this combination of analytical techniques, chemometric strategies, and biological interpretation. Moreover, the matrices are more and more complex and the implications of the results are often of major importance. In this context, the need for pertinent validation strategies comes naturally. The choice of the appropriate chemometric method remains nevertheless a difficult task due to particulari ...
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• The trend towards increasing hydroponic cultivation of cannabis continues to be prevalent; hydroponically grown cannabis is highly sought after by users. • Cannabis cultivation and distribution continues to be an aspect of organised crime. Large networks crossing jurisdictional boundaries and trafficking bulk quantities of cannabis and hydroponics equipment have been identified. • During 2000–01 Australian law enforcement seized 4563.7 kilograms of cannabis, an increase of 198.6 kilogr ...
The chemical-toxicological Laboratory of the Department of Clinical Toxicology carry on the analyses of xenobiotics in biological fluid collected from poisoned patient leaving in Krakow and south-eastern Poland. The evaluation of frequency of performed analyses in the years 1990-1999 shown that among psychoactive substances, ethanol is the most common reason of acute poisoning, followed by psychotropic drugs and drugs of abuse. The level of ethyl alcohol above 2 g/L was observed in more than 40% ...
This paper presents the engineering geological properties and roof control tecnology for a thick coal seam fully-mechanized face mining with hard roof conditions (THC) at the Jinhuagong Coal Mine (JCM), northwest China. The effective support working resistance and appropriate roof control technology are two critical factors for safe and productive mining in the THC. The load-estimate-method (LOEM) is the effective method to determine the support working resistance for normal working conditions ( ...